The Dinosauria Paleontology Factbook

Here are mine favorite of interest with dinosauria paleontology research foundation.

Coelurosaurs

Troodon formosus

  • Size: 7 feet (2.2 meters) long, stood 3 feet (1 meter) tall
  • Weight: 120 pounds (60 kg)
  • Classification: Coelurosaurian maniraptoran
  • Habitat: North America
  • Geological Date: 75 to 65 millions years ago

Troodontids look like many of the dromaeosaurs in many respects: both had long, narrow skulls with small, sharp teeth and both had an enlarged claw on the second toe and both were fast runners and keen hunters with brain coordination. In fact, scientists consider dromaeosaurs and troodontids to be each other’s closest relatives. Unlike many coelurosaurs maniraptora, Troodon have enlarged hind brain capacity for any known given dinosaurs of their intelligence. However their behavior coordination with intelligence, there are some scientist did believed they are well adapt to nocturnal with enlarged eyes in dim dusk of light than day time hunters like Tyrannosaurus or Dromaeosaurus especially in Alaska where there are less predatory behavior from Tyrannosaurus rex and are able to compete for larger prey in upper faunas in Canada and United States Alaska. Throughout United States landscape, Troodon are more specialized in hunting small animals or animals that are relatively to human size such as Orodromeus pachycephalosaurus, rodents mammals, birds, turtles, small reptilian, snakes, insects and plants. Scientist also had fascinated about the teeth have large serrations as many as 200 teeth counted from the lower jaw to capture prey. Troodon was a probably a generalist feeder that ate a wide range of food opportunity, perhaps depending the season. Troodon was also discovered place known as Egg Mountain in Montana with many dinosaur eggs. In among them have been Troodon teeth, so Troodon may well have fed baby dinosaurs nesting area from other dinosaurs species. So how intelligent was this it in comparison with today’s animal. Well, not very bright at all — scientists already have established roughly brain power of a dim-witted mammals such as a possum.

Velociraptor mongoliensis

  • Size: 6.5 feet (2 meters) long, stood 2.5 feet (75 cm) tall
  • Weight: 110 pounds (50 kg)
  • Classification: Dromaeosaurid Coelurosauria
  • Habitat: Mongolia, Asia
  • Geological Date: 75 to 71 millions years ago

Velociraptor (commonly shortened to “raptor”) is one of the dinosaur genera most familiar to the general public due to its prominent role in the Jurassic Park motion pictures series which the size depictions are over exaggerated, in real life of this science however, Velociraptor was roughly the size of a turkey. As with other dromaeosaurids, Velociraptor probably used its hooked talon to kill its prey such as Protoceratops. One celebrated Velociraptor skeleton found in Mongolia in 1971, seems to confirm this theory. Velociraptor was entangled with a Protoceratops skeleton with the Velociraptor foot claw embedded in the Protoceratops rib cage. More recent discoveries have also demonstrated the taphonomy process have demonstrated Velociraptor was caught from a storm while scavenging from a dead Protoceratops rather from a fighting in the storming weather.  The large brain allows coordination and balance as well as giving Velociraptor the ability to hunt in herds like many hunting dogs. Their long tail was held straight out while running and use for balance during attack mode. The more that we learn about these animals the more we find that there is basically no difference between birds and their closely related dinosaur ancestors like velociraptor. Both have wishbones, brooded their nests, possess hollow bones, and were covered in feathers. If animals like velociraptor were alive today our first impression would be that they were just very unusual looking birds. Velociraptor have feathers used for insulation and while running to keep themselves cool. Velociraptor was in fact warm-blooded animal to some degree, as it required a significant amount of energy to hunt. Modern animals that possess feathery or furry coats, like Velociraptor did, tend to be warm-blooded, since these coverings function as insulation. However, bone growth rates in dromaeosaurids and some early birds suggest a more moderate metabolism, compared with most modern warm-blooded mammals and birds.

Deinonychus antirrhopus

  • Size: 10 feet (3.3 meters) long, stood 4 feet (1.3 meters) tall
  • Weight: 220 pounds (100 kg)
  • Classification: Coelurosaurian Dromaeosaurid
  • Habitat: North America
  • Geological Date: 115 to 108 million years ago

Deinonychus is the first known Birds of Prey Dinosaurs was discovered they are known to be descendant of modern birds.  The study of Deinonychus in the late 1960s revolutionized the way scientists thought about dinosaurs, leading to the ” dinosaurs renaissance” and igniting the debate on whether dinosaurs were warm-blooded or cold-blooded animal. Before this, the popular conception of dinosaurs had been one of plodding, reptilian giants. Ostrom noted the small body, sleek, horizontal posture, ratite-like spine, and especially the enlarged raptorial claws on the feet, which suggested an active, agile predator. “Terrible claw” refers to the unusually large, sickle-shaped talon on the second toe of each hind foot are measured as over 120 millimetres (4.7 in) long. Deinonychus remains have been found closely associated with those of the ornithopod Tenontosaurus. Teeth discovered associated with Tenontosaurus specimens imply they were hunted, or at least scavenged upon, by Deinonychus. By John Ostrom’s description of Deinonychus caused a titanic shift in how scientists viewed dinosaurs. This animal was no dim-witted plodder but they have an agile, energetic predator that terrorized its ecosystem during Early Cretaceous. It was also remarkably similar to birds link and helped resurrect Huxley’s forgotten ideas of a dinosaur-bird evolutionary linkage. One of the greatest discoveries of modern palaeontology is that birds evolved from small, carnivorous theropod dinosaurs.

Tyrannosaurus rex

  • Size: 40 to 43 feet (12 – 13 meters) long, stood 13 to 14 feet (4 – 4.3 meters) tall
  • Weight: 7 to 8 tons
  • Classification: Coelurosaurs Tyrannosaurids
  • Habitat: North America
  • Geological Date: 68 to 65 million years ago

Tyrannosaurus is the undisputed king of the dinosaur reptile world. There is no other dinosaurs species is so popular or the subject of such intensive scientific research. The imaginations of both children and professional scientists alike flare at the thought of this animal kingdom that ruled the North American plains during final years of the Age of Dinosaurs. There is no doubt that Tyrannosaurus fed on large herbivorous like Edmontosaurus and Triceratops during the moment of time geographical age, but did this mega predator chase down its prey or ambush it? It turns that Tyrannosaurus would need more than 5.6 tons of leg muscle — some 80% of its body mass in order to run over short distance by surprise tactics. Scientists have produced a wide range of maximum speed estimates, mostly around 40 km/h (25 mph) and for Nanotyrannosaurus are around 45 km/h (30 mph) which is used to be juvenile species of Tyrannosaurus rex with hollow bones and other features that would have lightened its body mass. A more exact analysis of Tyrannosaurus feeding mechanism has been made possible by advances in computer software. It turns out that much of the skull, especially parts of the skull roof are thickened, fused and strengthen to endure the forces produced by feeding. Numerous skull sutures — those areas where different bone contact and how they are absorb while feeding in the mechanism of fashion snake skulls helps widen the jaw get bigger bites — also acted to absorb stresses. The forelimbs were tiny, measuring no more than 3 ft (1 meter) long, but were strong or robust enough that are probably used to help subdue and hold its prey. Tyrannosaur teeth could crush bone, and therefore could extract as much food (bone marrow) as possible from carcass remnants, usually the least nutritious parts, but point out that a tyrannosaurus teeth were not well adapted to systematically chewing bone like hyenas do to extract marrow. Since at least some of Tyrannosauruss potential prey could move quickly, evidence that it walked instead of ran could indicate that it was a scavenger. On the other hand, recent analyses suggest that Tyrannosaurus, while slower than large modern terrestrial predators, may well have been fast enough to prey on large dinosaurs. Fossils of Tyrannosaurus are very common in the Hell Creek Formation, a Late Cretaceous rock unit in the western United States. More than 30 skeletons have been discovered including many complete fossils.

Coelurosaurs diagram

 

 

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